LEGIONELLA

Sustainable water management for publicly accessible buildings

WHAT IS LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE?


Legionellitis is the name of the disease that is caused by infection of the Legionella pneumophilia bacterium. Below you can read information  about the bacteria and the disease it causes. The information is gathered from publicly available resources.

WIKIPEDIA 

about Legionella


The genus Legionella is a pathogenic group of Gram-negative bacteria that includes the species L. pneumophila, causing legionellosis[2] (all illnesses caused by Legionella) including a pneumonia-type illness called Legionnaires' disease and a mild flu-like illness called Pontiac fever.

Legionella acquired its name after an outbreak of a then-unknown "mystery disease" sickened 221 persons, causing 34 deaths. The outbreak was first noticed among people attending a convention of the American Legion—an association of U.S. military veterans. The convention occurred in Philadelphia during the U.S. Bicentennial year in July 21–24, 1976. This epidemic among U.S. war veterans, occurring in the same city as—and within days of the 200th anniversary of—the signing of the Declaration of Independence, was widely publicized and caused great concern in the United States.[5]


On January 18, 1977, the causative agent was identified as a previously unknown bacterium subsequently named Legionella.


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Legionnaires' disease 

by Wikipedia

Legionnaires' disease is a form of atypical pneumonia caused by any type of Legionella bacteria.[3] Signs and symptoms include cough, shortness of breath, high fever, muscle pains, and headaches. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may also occur. This often begins two to ten days after being exposed.


The bacterium is found naturally in fresh water. It can contaminate hot water tanks, hot tubs, and cooling towers of large air conditioners. It is usually spread by breathing in mist that contains the bacteria. It can also occur when contaminated water is aspirated. It typically does not spread directly between people and most people who are exposed do not become infected.[5] Risk factors for infection include older age, history of smoking, chronic lung disease, and poor immune function. It is recommended that those with severe pneumonia and those with pneumonia and a recent travel history be tested for the disease. Diagnosis is by a urinary antigen test and sputum culture.


There is no vaccine. Prevention depends on good maintenance of water systems. Treatment of Legionnaires' disease is with antibiotics. Recommended agents include fluoroquinolones, azithromycin, or doxycycline. Hospitalization is often required. About 10% of those who are infected die.


The number of cases that occur globally is not known. It is estimated that Legionnaires' disease is the cause of between two and nine percent of pneumonia cases that occur in the community. There are an estimated 8,000 to 18,000 cases a year in the United States that require hospitalization. Outbreaks of disease account for a minority of cases. While it can occur any time of the year it is more common in the summer and fall. The disease is named after the outbreak where it was first identified, the 1976 American Legion convention in Philadelphia.


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THE GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)


Key facts

The bacterium L. pneumophila was first identified in 1977, as the cause of an outbreak of severe pneumonia in a convention centre in the USA in 1976. The most common form of transmission of Legionella is inhalation of contaminated aerosols produced in conjunction with water sprays, jets or mists. Infection can also occur by aspiration of contaminated water or ice, particularly in susceptible hospital patients.

Legionnaires’ disease has an incubation period of 2 to 10 days (but up to 16 days has been recorded in some outbreaks).

Death occurs through progressive pneumonia with respiratory failure and/or shock and multi-organ failure. Untreated Legionnaires’ disease usually worsens during the first week. Of the reported cases 75–80% are over 50 years and 60–70% are male.

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OUTBREAKS FREPORTED IN MEDIA

(Swedish only)


Legionellabak-terier på Orups-sjukhuset


HÖÖR Provtagningen av dricksvattnet på Orup i mars visade på höga halter av Legionella. Ingen person har insjuknat. Men nu efterlyser Höörs kommun återkoppling på vilka åtgärder som gjorts.. (källa: Norra Skåne)

Uppemot 1000 legionellafall årligen

SVERIGE Varje år rapporteras cirka 100 fall av legionella i Sverige. Men enligt studier utgör det endast en tiondel av det verkliga antalet, på grund av svårigheter att ställa diagnos.

(källa SVT Nyheter)


Smittan kan vara luftburen

Ett nytt dödsoffer i legionärssjukan

LIDKÖPING Legionärssjukan har nu skördat sitt andra dödsoffer.

En man i 60-årsåldern från Lidköping vid Vänern. Den fruktade smittan kan ha spridits med fuktiga vindar från norr. (källa: Aftonbladet)


Legionellan släppper inte greppet


MOTALA Trots spoling med hetvatten har legionellan fortsatt grepp om duschar i sim- och sporthallen. Nu har material beställts för att åtgärda problemet. (källa: MVT)

Stämmer hyresvärd för legionellafall

GÄVLE Hyresgästföreningen ska i domstol kräva det kommunala bostadsbolaget Gavlegårdarna på skadestånd för att en av deras hyresgäster blev svårt sjuk i legionella för tre år sedan, skriver Arbetarbladet. (källa: SvD)

Sju döda i legionellautbrott i New York

NEW YORK Sju personer har dött i legionärssjukan som just nu härjar i New York. Sköj duschslangen – är tipset från en svensk överläkare till de som ska åka till det drabbade området.

(källa: SVT)



Efter legionella-larmet - problemen snart borta


LEGIONELLAUnder senvintern och våren har det förekommit legionella på Rehabcenter Mösseberg i Falköping.

Men vill det sig väl är problemet äntligen ur världen.

— Vi har nyligen gjort en kemisk sanering i en vattenstam och inväntar nu några provsvar. Sedan hoppas vi kunna sätta punkt, säger Erik Saar, marknadschef på Bräcke Diakoni.. (källa: Falköpings Tidning)

Legionella-bakterien fanns i duschslangen

SUNDSVALL Den 69-åriga kvinna som nyligen avled i sviterna av legionella på Sundsvalls sjukhus kan ha smittas av en duschslang på avdelningen. Provsvar visar nu att legionellabakterier fanns i slangen, trots att regelbundna kontroller gjorts.

[Källa: Dagbladet)

Legionellafall i Hofors

HOFORS  ​En hyresgäst hos Hoforshus vårdas på Gävle sjukhus efter att ha smittats av legionellabakterier. Troligen har hyresgästen smittats i sin bostad på Hantverkargatan 26. Hoforshus uppmanar nu hyresgästerna i fastigheten att se till att duschvattnet blir riktigt varmt innan de duschar.

(källa: Hem&Hyra)

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